A foundation is a structure that helps in transferring the load carried by the building to the earth. This helps in maintaining the stability of the building and providing support to the pillars of the skyscrapers. Generally, these foundations are divided into two types, namely shallow and deep foundations based on the depth of excavation of the soil.
The shallow foundation is otherwise termed as footings and is embedded only for about a metre into the soil. There are two other types of the footings. One is the most commonly used spread footing. This type uses strips or pads of concrete or any other material to penetrate below the frost layer for the transfer of the weight from the building to the ground or the rock bed. The deep foundation is mainly used in skyscrapers for transferring heavy load to the ground. For ensuring the strength, the soil is excavated deeper depending on the height of the building to be constructed. There are various types of deep footings such as the piles, drilled, shafts, etc. The monopile foundation is a type of deep foundation which is most commonly used for the construction of large fixed bottom offshore wind farms by private organisations or even the government organisations. They have a large structural element that is embedded into the earth to support the weight.
Basic steps of building foundation
Survey and stake are the most important parts of any construction as they give clear ideas on the type as well as the style of the building that is to be constructed. Moreover, the depth of the foundation is also measured based on these reports.
The nature of the soil is all studied and are planned by the engineer on the amount of soil that can be excavated from that particular place. The excavation cannot deepen beyond certain points as they might touch the water table and result in a wet soil which will lead to dampness. Footings help in evenly spreading the weight all through the path provided by the concrete material. Based on the need, the footings are added additionally if needed. Sub-slab systems For the plumbing works, the sub-slab systems are very much needed as they protect the pipes from any damage due to weight. Foundation drainage tile system collects water from surfaces and drains them. Foundation walls are constructed which act as beams for the building. The anchor bolts and beam pockets are casted on pre-defined points as well as the top of walls to provide support.